How to account for closing cost on business loan refinancinig

## Accounting for Closing Costs on Business Loan Refinancing

**Understanding Closing Costs**

When refinancing a business loan, borrowers typically incur various closing costs. These costs are fees and expenses associated with the loan transaction, including:

– **Loan origination fees:** A percentage of the loan amount charged by the lender for processing and underwriting the loan.
– **Appraisal fees:** Costs associated with obtaining an appraisal of the property securing the loan.
– **Title fees:** Fees for title search, title insurance, and documentation preparation.
– **Recording fees:** Fees charged by the local government for recording the new loan documents.
– **Attorney fees:** Costs for legal services related to the loan transaction.
– **Third-party fees:** Charges for services provided by third parties, such as environmental reports or property inspections.

## Accounting Treatment of Closing Costs

The accounting treatment of closing costs for business loan refinancing depends on the nature of the costs.

**Capitalized Costs:**

– **Loan origination fees** and **appraisal fees** are considered capitalizable costs. They are added to the cost basis of the loan and amortized over the life of the loan.
– **Title fees** related to the acquisition of the loan are also capitalizable costs.

**Expensed Costs:**

– **Recording fees**, **attorney fees**, and **third-party fees** are considered expensed costs. They are recorded as expenses in the period incurred.

## Journal Entries

The following journal entries demonstrate the accounting treatment of closing costs:

**To capitalize loan origination and appraisal fees:**

Debit: Loan origination fees xxx
Credit: Loan payable xxx

Debit: Appraisal fees xxx
Credit: Loan payable xxx

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**To record recording fees, attorney fees, and third-party fees as expenses:**

Debit: Expense account xxx
Credit: Cash xxx


A business refinances its existing $100,000 loan with a new loan. The following closing costs are incurred:

– Loan origination fee: $2,000
– Appraisal fee: $500
– Recording fees: $150
– Attorney fees: $250

**Journal Entries:**

Debit: Loan origination fees 2,000
Credit: Loan payable 2,000

Debit: Appraisal fees 500
Credit: Loan payable 500

Debit: Expense account 400
Credit: Cash 400

## Impact on Financial Statements

**Balance Sheet:**

– Capitalized closing costs (loan origination and appraisal fees) increase the loan payable balance.
– Expensed closing costs reduce the net income for the period.

**Income Statement:**

– Expensed closing costs appear as expenses on the income statement.
– Capitalized closing costs do not directly impact the income statement, but they reduce the net income gradually over the life of the loan through amortization.

## Tax Implications

For tax purposes, closing costs related to loan refinancing are generally treated as follows:

– **Capitalized costs:** Amortized over the life of the loan.
– **Expensed costs:** Deductible in the year incurred.

## Best Practices

To ensure proper accounting for closing costs, businesses should:

– **Review the loan agreement carefully** to identify all associated closing costs.
– **Document all closing costs incurred** with supporting invoices and receipts.
– **Classify closing costs correctly** as either capitalized or expensed costs.
– **Consider the tax implications** of closing costs.
– **Maintain accurate records** for future reference and potential audits.

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By following these best practices, businesses can ensure that closing costs are accounted for appropriately and have a clear understanding of their financial impact.

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